Acne tends to appear in places where sebum production is excessive (forehead, cheeks), and when the interaction of hormones, bacteria, and sebum causes an infection in the pores.
When the pores that secrete sebum get clogged, acne starts to develop. Dry sebum and dead skin cells then accumulate inside the clogged pores. This condition is what is known as blackheads (when pores are open and the inside is visible) or whiteheads (when pores are closed).
If the acne develops further, the pore will pop, causing the content to flow out, and worsening the infection. The deeper layer of the skin will be damaged. Therefore, even if the infection goes away, acne scars will remain.
Acne is caused by Cutibacterium acnes (bacteria that is part of the normal skin flora in healthy adult skin). They inhabit the sebaceous glands and favor sebum, so when the pores get clogged, the bacteria feed off the sebum in the pores. This results in an excess increase of the bacteria which secrete lipolytic enzyme, turning sebum into free fatty acids and causing acne.
Cosmetic products also clog the pores and may worsen acne.
Methods of treatment include: application of antioxidants, killing of bacteria, normalization of sebum secretion... Treatment will vary according to the patient's symptoms. If left untreated, acne can leave scars so please consult us before symptoms get worse.